AME 75:259-269 (2015)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/ame01762

Cellular nutrient content measured with the nuclear microprobe and toxins produced by Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) from the Trondheim fjord (Norway)

Eva Pérez Blanco1,*, Chatarina Karlsson1, Jan Pallon2, Takeshi Yasumoto3, Edna Granéli1,4,5

1LnUCEEMiS—School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden
2Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
3Japan Food Research Laboratories, Tama Laboratory, Nagayama, Tama-shi, Tokyo 206-0025, Japan
4Aquatic Ecology, Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
5CCS-Biogeochemistry Laboratory, Biology Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (URFJ), Rio de Janeiro, 21941-971, Brazil
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Dinophysis norvegica is a commonly occurring dinoflagellate species and a producer of diarrhetic shellfish poisons. Natural samples were collected from Trondheim fjord, Norway, to analyse nutrient (O, C, N, P) and toxin (dinophysitoxins [DXTs], okadaic acid [OA], pectenotoxins [PTXs]) content in D. norvegica cells. Nutrient and toxin analyses were also carried out on cells grown under nutrient-sufficient and nutrient-deficient conditions to determine how intracellular nutrient and toxin content varied under different nutrient availability conditions. Nutrient analyses were conducted using nuclear microprobe techniques that can accurately analyse single cells, and toxin analyses were carried out using liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The intracellular carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content in individual cells varied greatly, and intracellular C:N:P ratios showed that the cells were both N- and P-deficient when compared to the Redfield ratio. The ideal N:P ratio in the media for D. norvegica was found to be below the Redfield ratio, but intracellular ratios did not show a clear relationship with those in the media. N:P ratios of D. norvegica were higher than expected, which is likely due to their phagotrophy on zooplankon. The highest toxin values found were traces of PTX2, 24.72 pg PTX2SA cell-1, 2.19 pg DTX1 cell-1, and 1.01 pg OA cell-1. However, we found no clear relationship between the content of intracellular nutrients and toxins.


KEY WORDS: Dinophysis · Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning · Elemental cellular content · Mixotrophy · Nuclear microprobe · Nutrient ratios · Nutrients · Trondheim fjord


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Cite this article as: Pérez Blanco E, Karlsson C, Pallon J, Yasumoto T, Granéli E (2015) Cellular nutrient content measured with the nuclear microprobe and toxins produced by Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) from the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Aquat Microb Ecol 75:259-269. https://doi.org/10.3354/ame01762

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