CR 22:99-113 (2002) - doi:10.3354/cr022099
A knowledge-based approach to the statistical mapping of climate
Christopher Daly1,*, Wayne P. Gibson1, George H. Taylor1, Gregory L. Johnson2, Phillip Pasteris2
ABSTRACT: The demand for spatial climate data in digital form has risen dramatically in recent years. In response to this need, a variety of statistical techniques have been used to facilitate the production of GIS-compatible climate maps. However, observational data are often too sparse and unrepresentative to directly support the creation of high-quality climate maps and data sets that truly represent the current state of knowledge. An effective approach is to use the wealth of expert knowledge on the spatial patterns of climate and their relationships with geographic features, termed Œgeospatial climatology¹, to help enhance, control, and parameterize a statistical technique. Described here is a dynamic knowledge-based framework that allows for the effective accumulation, application, and refinement of climatic knowledge, as expressed in a statistical regression model known as PRISM (parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model). The ultimate goal is to develop an expert system capable of reproducing the process a knowledgeable climatologist would use to create high-quality climate maps, with the added benefits of consistency and repeatability. However, knowledge must first be accumulated and evaluated through an ongoing process of model application; development of knowledge prototypes, parameters and parameter settings; testing; evaluation; and modification. This paper describes the current state of a knowledge-based framework for climate mapping and presents specific algorithms from PRISM to demonstrate how this framework is applied and refined to accommodate difficult climate mapping situations. A weighted climate-elevation regression function acknowledges the dominant influence of elevation on climate. Climate stations are assigned weights that account for other climatically important factors besides elevation. Aspect and topographic exposure, which affect climate at a variety of scales, from hill slope to windward and leeward sides of mountain ranges, are simulated by dividing the terrain into topographic facets. A coastal proximity measure is used to account for sharp climatic gradients near coastlines. A 2-layer model structure divides the atmosphere into a lower boundary layer and an upper free atmosphere layer, allowing the simulation of temperature inversions, as well as mid-slope precipitation maxima. The effectiveness of various terrain configurations at producing orographic precipitation enhancement is also estimated. Climate mapping examples are presented.
KEY WORDS: Climate map · Knowledge-based system · Climate interpolation · Spatial climate · Climate data sets · GIS · PRISM · Geospatial climatology
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