DAO 102:187-194 (2013)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02557

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians

T. M. Doherty-Bone1,2,9,*, N. L. Gonwouo3, M. Hirschfeld4, T. Ohst4, C. Weldon5, M. Perkins2, M. T. Kouete3, R. K. Browne6, S. P. Loader1,7, D. J. Gower1, M. W. Wilkinson1, M. O. Rödel4, J. Penner4, M. F. Barej4, A. Schmitz8, J. Plötner4, A. A. Cunningham

1Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, SW7 5BD, UK
2Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regents Park, London NW1 4RY, UK
3Project CamHerp, BP 1616, Yaoundé, Cameroon
4Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Berlin 10115, Germany
5Unit for Environmental Research: Zoology, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
6Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Koningin Astridplein 26, 2018 Antwerp, Belgium
7University of Basel, Department of Environmental Sciences, Basel 4056, Switzerland
8Department of Herpetology & Ichthyology, Muséum d’histoire naturelle, Geneva 1208, Switzerland
9Present address: School of Geography, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS2 9JT, UK

ABSTRACT: Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n = 1052) and caecilians (n = 85) of ca. 108 species. Bd was detected in 124 amphibian hosts at 7 localities, including Mt. Oku, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Manengouba and lowland localities in the centre and west of the country. None of the hosts were observed dead or dying. Infected amphibian hosts were not detected in other localities in the south and eastern rainforest belt. Infection occurred in both anurans and caecilians, making this the first reported case of infection in the latter order (Gymnophiona) of amphibians. There was no significant difference between prevalence and infection intensity in frogs and caecilians. We highlight the importance of taking into account the inhibition of diagnostic qPCR in studies on Bd, based on all Bd-positive hosts being undetected when screened without bovine serum albumin in the qPCR mix. The status of Bd as an indigenous, cosmopolitan amphibian parasite in Africa, including Cameroon, is supported by this work. Isolating and sequencing strains of Bd from Cameroon should now be a priority. Longitudinal host population monitoring will be required to determine the effects, if any, of the infection on amphibians in Cameroon.


KEY WORDS: Amphibian chytrid fungus · Real time PCR · Africa · PCR inhibition


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Cite this article as: Doherty-Bone TM, Gonwouo NL, Hirschfeld M, Ohst T and others (2013) Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians. Dis Aquat Org 102:187-194. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02557

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