DAO 102:211-216 (2013)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02549

Comparison of treatments to inactivate viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) in frozen baitfish

Nicholas B. D. Phelps1,*, Andrew E. Goodwin2, Emily Marecaux2, Sagar M. Goyal

1Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1333 Gortner Avenue, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA
2Aquaculture/Fisheries Center, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, 1200 North University Drive, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71601, USA

ABSTRACT: Current US state and federal fish health regulations target the spread of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus-IVb (VHSV-IVb) through movement restrictions of live fish; however, they largely ignore the potential for the virus to be spread through commercial distribution and use of frozen baitfish from VHSV-IVb-positive regions. Some state laws do require treatment of frozen baitfish to inactivate VHSV, and additional methods have been proposed, but few scientific studies have examined the efficacy of these treatments. In this study, bluegills Lepomis macrochirus were challenged with VHSV-IVb and frozen to represent standard industry methods, disinfected by various treatments, and tested for infectious VHSV-IVb using virus isolation. The virus was isolated from 70% of fish subjected to 3 freeze/thaw cycles. All other treatment methods were effective in inactivating the virus, including treatment with isopropyl alcohol, mineral oil, salt and borax, and dehydration. Dehydration followed by rehydration is rapid and effective, and therefore, seems to be the best option for inactivating VHSV-IVb present in frozen baitfish while maintaining their usefulness as bait.


KEY WORDS: VHS · Inactivation · Dehydration · Bluegill


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Cite this article as: Phelps NBD, Goodwin AE, Marecaux E, Goyal SM (2013) Comparison of treatments to inactivate viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV-IVb) in frozen baitfish. Dis Aquat Org 102:211-216. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02549

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