DAO 115:57-66 (2015)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02875

Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida 

S. Menanteau-Ledouble1, I. Krauss1, G. Santos2, S. Fibi3, B. Weber3, M. El-Matbouli1,*

1Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
2BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Industriestrasse 21, 3130 Herzogenburg, Austria
3BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: In recent years, feed additives have increasingly been adopted by the aquaculture industry. These supplements not only offer an alternative to antibiotics but have also been linked to enhanced growth performance. However, the literature is still limited and provides contradictory information on their effectiveness. This is mainly due to the wide variety of available products and their complex mechanisms of action. Phytogenic feed additives have been shown to have antimicrobial effects and can improve growth performance. In the present study, we investigated the susceptibility of several fish pathogenic bacteria to a phytogenic essential oil product in vitro. In addition, we determined the protective effect of a commercial phytogenic feed additive containing oregano, anis and citrus oils on the resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida. The bacterium was administered through 3 different routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion in a bacterial solution and cohabitation with infected fish. Mortality rates were significantly lower in infected rainbow trout that had received the feed additive: the overall mortality rate across all routes of infection was 18% in fish fed a diet containing the additive compared to 37% in fish that received unsupplemented feed. The route of infection also significantly impacted mortality, with average mortality rates of 60, 17.5 and 5% for intra-peritoneal injection, immersion and cohabitation, respectively. In general, fish were better protected against infection by immersion than infection by injection.


KEY WORDS: Rainbow trout · Disease resistance · Essential oils · Oregano · Anis · Citrus oil


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Cite this article as: Menanteau-Ledouble S, Krauss I, Santos G, Fibi S, Weber B, El-Matbouli M (2015) Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the susceptibility of Onchorhynchus mykiss to Aeromonas salmonicida . Dis Aquat Org 115:57-66. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02875

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