DAO 119:245-251 (2016)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02994

NOTE
Concentration of carp edema virus (CEV) DNA in koi tissues affected by koi sleepy disease (KSD)

Mikolaj Adamek1, Verena Jung-Schroers1, John Hellmann1,6, Felix Teitge1, Sven Michael Bergmann2, Martin Runge3, Dirk Willem Kleingeld4, Keith Way5, David Michael Stone5, Dieter Steinhagen1,* 

1Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, 30559 Germany
2Institute of Infectology, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 17493 (postal code 9) Greifswald, Germany
3Food and Veterinary Institute, Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 30173 Hannover, Germany
4Veterinary Task-Force, Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 30173 Hannover, Germany
5Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 7TY, UK
6Present address: Landesamt für Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen (LANUV), Fisheries Ecology, Heinsberger Str. 53, 57399 Kirchhundem-Albaum, Germany
*‑Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Carp edema virus (CEV), the causative agent of ‘koi sleepy disease’ (KSD), appears to be spreading worldwide and to be responsible for losses in koi, ornamental varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Clinical signs of KSD include lethargic behaviour, swollen gills, sunken eyes and skin alterations and can easily be mistaken for other diseases, such as infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). To improve the future diagnosis of CEV infection and to provide a tool to better explore the relationship between viral load and clinical disease, we developed a specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) for strains of the virus known to infect koi carp. In samples from several clinically affected koi, CEV-specific DNA was present in a range from 1 to 2046000 copies, with a mean of 129982 copies and a median of 45 copies per 250 ng of isolated DNA, but virus DNA could not be detected in all clinically affected koi. A comparison of the newly developed qPCR, which is based on a dual-labelled probe, to an existing end-point PCR procedure revealed higher specificity and sensitivity of the qPCR and demonstrated that the new protocol could improve CEV detection in koi. In addition to improved diagnosis, the newly developed qPCR test would be a useful research tool. For example, studies on the pathobiology of CEV could employ controlled infection experiments in which the development of clinical signs could be examined in parallel with a quantitative determination of virus load.


KEY WORDS: Carp edema virus · Koi sleepy disease · Real-time PCR · Common carp · Koi Cyprinus carpio


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Cite this article as: Adamek M, Jung-Schroers V, Hellmann J, Teitge F and others (2016) Concentration of carp edema virus (CEV) DNA in koi tissues affected by koi sleepy disease (KSD). Dis Aquat Org 119:245-251. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02994

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