DAO 125:53-61 (2017)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03139

Fate of redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) in experimentally challenged Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum 

E. Volpe1, N. Pagnini2, P. Serratore1, S. Ciulli1,*

1Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, 47042 Cesenatico, FC, Italy
2Cesena Campus, University of Bologna, 47042 Cesenatico, FC, Italy
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), genus Betanodavirus, family Nodaviridae, is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis) and can infect several fish species worldwide. Betanodaviruses, including RGNNV, are very resilient in the aquatic environment, and their presence has already been reported in several wild marine species including invertebrates. In order to investigate the interaction between a bivalve mollusc (Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum) and RGNNV, we optimised a culture-based method. The bioaccumulation of the pathogenic RGNNV by R. philippinarum and the potential shedding of viable RGNNV from RGNNV-exposed clams were evaluated through a culture-based method. R. philippinarum clearly accumulated viable RGNNV in their hepatopancreatic tissue and were able to release viable RGNNV via faecal matter and filtered water into the surrounding environment. The role of clams as bioaccumulators and shedders of viable RGGNV could put susceptible cohabiting cultured fish at risk. RGNNV-contaminated molluscs could behave as reservoirs for this virus and may modify the virus epidemiology.


KEY WORDS: Betanodavirus · RGNNV · Ruditapes philippinarum · Manila clam · Bioaccumulation · Shedding · Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy · Marine environment


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Cite this article as: Volpe E, Pagnini N, Serratore P, Ciulli S (2017) Fate of redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) in experimentally challenged Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum . Dis Aquat Org 125:53-61. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03139

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