DAO 125:179-188 (2017)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03149

Identifying coagulopathies in the pathophysiology of cold stress syndrome in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris

Ashley Barratclough1,2,7,*, Bobbi J. Conner3, Marjory B. Brooks4, Alyssa Pontes Stablein4, Trevor J. Gerlach5, Roger L. Reep6, Ray L. Ball1, Ruth Francis Floyd2

1Tampa’s Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, Florida 33714, USA
2Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
3Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
4Comparative Coagulation Laboratory, Animal Health Diagnostic Center, Cornell University Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
5Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30601, USA
6Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
7Present address: The Dallas World Aquarium, 1801 N Griffin Street, Dallas, Texas 75202, USA
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Cold stress syndrome (CSS) in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris has been defined as morbidity and mortality resulting from prolonged exposure to water temperatures <20°C. The pathophysiology is described as multifactorial, involving nutritional, immunological and metabolic disturbances; however, the exact mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that thromboembolic complications contribute to the pathophysiology of CSS in addition to the previously described factors. During the winter of 2014-2015, 10 Florida manatees with clinical signs of CSS were presented to Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, FL, USA. Thromboelastography (TEG) and coagulation panels were performed at admission. In addition, coagulation panel data from 23 retrospective CSS cases were included in the analyses. There were numerous differences between mean values of TEG and coagulation parameters for healthy manatees and those for CSS cases. Among TEG parameters, reaction time (R), clot formation time (K) and percentage of clot lysed after 30 min (LY30) values were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the 2 groups. CSS cases also had significantly higher mean D-dimer concentration and coagulation factor XI activity, prolonged mean activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and significantly decreased mean antithrombin activity. These combined abnormalities include clinicopathologic criteria of disseminated intravascular coagulation, indicating an increased risk of thromboembolic disease associated with manatee CSS.


KEY WORDS: Coagulopathy · Cold stress syndrome · Florida manatee · Thromboelastography · Thromboembolic disease · Trichechus manatus latirostris


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Cite this article as: Barratclough A, Conner BJ, Brooks MB, Pontes Stablein A and others (2017) Identifying coagulopathies in the pathophysiology of cold stress syndrome in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris. Dis Aquat Org 125:179-188. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03149

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