DAO 126:155-166 (2017)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03164

REVIEW
Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio 

K. Way1,*, O. Haenen2, D. Stone1, M. Adamek3, S. M. Bergmann4, L. Bigarré5, N. Diserens6, M. El-Matbouli7, M. C. Gjessing8, V. Jung-Schroers3, E. Leguay9, M. Matras10, N. J. Olesen11, V. Panzarin12, V. Piačková13, A. Toffan12, N. Vendramin11, T. Veselý14, T. Waltzek15 

1Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Weymouth, DT4 8UB, UK
2Wageningen Bioveterinary Research of Wageningen UR, 8219 PH, Lelystad, The Netherlands
3Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine, 30559 Hannover, Germany
4Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 17493 Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany
5ANSES, Fish Viral Pathology, 29280 Plouzané, France
6Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
7Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, 1210 Vienna, Austria
8Norwegian Veterinary Institute, 0106 Oslo, Norway
9Vetofish, 13220 Châteauneuf-les-Martigues, France
10Department of Fish Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
11DTU VET, EURL for Fish Diseases, Technical University of Denmark, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
12Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Padova, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
13Faculty of Fisheries & Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia, 38925 Vodnany, Czech Republic
14Veterinary Research Institute, 62100 Brno, Czech Republic
15College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks. Although the structure of the CEV genome is not yet elucidated, molecular epidemiology studies have suggested distinct geographical populations of CEV infecting both koi and common carp. Detection and identification of cases of CEVD in common carp were unreliable using the original PCR primers. New primers for conventional and quantitative PCR (qPCR) have been designed that improve detection, and their sequences are provided in this paper. The qPCR primers have successfully detected CEV DNA in archive material from investigations of unexplained carp mortalities conducted >15 yr ago. Improvement in disease management and control is possible, and the principles of biosecurity, good health management and disease surveillance, applied to koi herpesvirus disease, can be equally applied to CEVD. However, further research studies are needed to fill the knowledge gaps in the disease pathogenesis and epidemiology that, currently, prevent an accurate assessment of the likely impact of CEVD on European koi and common carp aquaculture and on wild carp stocks.


KEY WORDS: Cyprinus carpio · CEVD · Koi sleepy disease · Poxvirus · PCR · Aquaculture


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Cite this article as: Way K, Haenen O, Stone D, Adamek M and others (2017) Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio . Dis Aquat Org 126:155-166. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03164

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