DAO 33:77-85 (1998)  -  doi:10.3354/dao033077

Channel catfish reovirus (CRV) inhibits replication of channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV) by two distinct mechanisms: viral interference and induction of an anti-viral factor

V. G. Chinchar1,*, O. Logue1, A. Antao1, G. D. Chinchar2

1Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA
2Department of Natural Sciences, Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, Mississippi 39174, USA

Catfish reovirus (CRV), a double-stranded RNA virus, inhibited channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV) replication by 2 different mechanisms: (1) directly as a consequence of its own replication, and (2) indirectly due to the induction of an anti-viral factor. In the former, prior infection with CRV significantly reduced subsequent CCV protein synthesis and virus yield. CRV-mediated interference was greatest when CRV infection preceded CCV infection by 16 h, and was least when cell cultures were simultaneoulsy infected with both viruses. In the latter case, infection of channel catfish ovary (CCO) cultures with UV-inactivated CRV resulted in the synthesis (or release) of an anti-viral factor. Cells producing the factor were protected from CCV infection, as were cells which had been treated with spent culture medium containing anti-viral activity. Interestingly an anti-viral activity was constitutively present in long-term cultures of catfish T cells and macrophages. Whether this factor and the one induced by UV-inactivated CRV are identical is not known, but analogy to mammalian systems suggests that the former may be similar to type II interferon, whereas the latter may be the piscine equivalent of type I interferon. These results suggest that UV-inactivated CRV may prove useful in the induction and characterization of interferon-like anti-viral proteins in the channel catfish and that long-term cultures of catfish T cells and monocytes may serve as a ready source of additional anti-viral factors.

Viral interference · Anti-viral factor · Interferon · Catfish reovirus · Channel catfish herpesvirus · Catfish lymphoid cell lines

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