DAO 67:191-200 (2005)  -  doi:10.3354/dao067191

Different responses to infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

Kanokporn Chayaburakul1, Donald V. Lightner3, Siriporn Sriurairattana2, Kathy Tang Nelson3, Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul1,2,*

1Department of Anatomy, and 2Centex Shrimp, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd., Bangkok 10400, Thailand
3Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721-0090, USA
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is widespread in cultured Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei in Thailand. It causes runt-deformity syndrome that is characterized by physical abnormalities and stunted growth in P. vannamei, but causes no apparent disease in P. monodon. In both species, the virus may produce Cowdry Type A inclusions in tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin, but these are common in P. vannamei and rare in P. monodon. The virus can be more easily detected in both species by IHHNV-specific PCR primers. By in situ hybridization (ISH) using specific IHHNV probes, fixed phagocytes associated with myocardial cells tended to show strong positive reactions in both shrimp species. Ovarian and neural tissue (neurons in the nerve ganglia and glial cells in the nerve cord) were ISH positive for IHHNV only in P. vannamei. By transmission electron microscopy, necrotic cells were found in the gills of IHHNV-infected P. vannamei, while paracrystalline arrays of virions and apoptotic cells rather than necrotic cells were found in the lymphoid organ of IHHNV-infected P. monodon. Thus, it is possible that apoptosis in P. monodon contributes to the absence of clinical disease from IHHNV. These findings reveal different responses to IHHNV infection by the 2 shrimp species. A curious feature of IHHNV infection in P. monodon was inconsistency in the comparative viral load amongst tissues of different specimens, as detected by both ISH and real-time PCR. This inconsistency in apparent tissue preference and the reasons for different cellular responses between the 2 shrimp species remain unexplained.

KEY WORDS: Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus · IHHNV · Penaeus monodon · Penaeus vannamei · Differential response

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