DAO 73:227-234 (2007)  -  doi:10.3354/dao073227

Miamiensis avidus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) causes systemic infection of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and is a senior synonym of Philasterides dicentrarchi

Sung-Ju Jung*, Shin-Ichi Kitamura, Jun-Young Song, Myung-Joo Oh

Department of Aqualife Medicine, Chonnam National University, Chonnam 550-749, Korea
*Email: sungju@ chonnam.ac.kr

ABSTRACT: The scuticociliate Miamiensis avidus was isolated from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus showing typical symptoms of ulceration and hemorrhages in skeletal muscle and fins. In an infection experiment, olive flounder (mean length: 14.9 cm; mean weight: 26.8 g) were immersion challenged with 2.0 × 103, 2.0 × 104 and 2.0 × 105 ciliates ml–1 of the cloned YS1 strain of M. avidus. Cumulative mortalities were 85% in the 2.0 × 103 cells ml–1 treatment group and 100% in the other 2 infection groups. Many ciliates, containing red blood cells in the cytoplasm, were observed in the gills, skeletal muscle, skin, fins and brains of infected fish, which showed accompanying hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions. Ciliates were also observed in the lamina propria of the digestive tract, pharynx and cornea. The fixed ciliates were 31.5 ± 3.87 µm in length and 18.5 ± 3.04 µm in width, and were ovoid and slightly elongated in shape, with a pointed anterior and a rounded posterior, presenting a caudal cilium. Other morphological characteristics were as follows: 13 to 14 somatic kineties, oral ciliature comprising membranelles M1, M2, M3, and paroral membranes PM1 and PM2, contractile vacuole at the posterior end of kinety 2, shortened last somatic kinety and a buccal field to body length ratio of 0.47 ± 0.03. In addition, continuous PM1 and PM2, lack of M3 and variable kinetosome numbers in M2 and M3 were frequently observed. Specimens in the current study were compared with previous reports on M. avidus and Philasterides dicentrarchi and confirmed consistently that these 2 taxa are conspecific.


KEY WORDS: Miamiensis avidus · Philasterides dicentrarchi · Ciliophora · Scuticociliatida · Pathogenicity · Olive flounder


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