DAO 79:207-218 (2008)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao01916

Emergence of cold water strawberry disease of rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss in England and Wales: outbreak investigations and transmission studies

D. W. Verner-Jeffreys*, M. J. Pond, E. J. Peeler, G. S. E. Rimmer, B. Oidtmann, K. Way, J. Mewett, K. Jeffrey, K. Bateman, R. A. Reese, S. W. Feist

Cefas Weymouth Laboratory (CWL), Barrack Road, The Nothe, Weymouth, Dorset, DT4 8UB, UK

ABSTRACT: Cold water strawberry disease (CWSD), or red mark syndrome (RMS), is a severe dermatitis affecting the rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss. The condition, which presents as multifocal, raised lesions on the flanks of affected fish, was first diagnosed in Scotland in 2003 and has since spread to England and Wales. Results of field investigations indicated the condition had an infectious aetiology, with outbreaks in England linked to movements of live fish from affected sites in Scotland. Transmission trials confirmed these results, with 11 of 149 and 106 of 159 naïve rainbow trout displaying CWSD-characteristic lesions 104 to 106 d after being cohabited with CWSD-affected fish from 2 farms (Farm B from England and Farm C from Wales, respectively). The condition apparently has a long latency, with the first characteristic lesions in the previously naïve fish not definitively observed until 65 d (650 day-degrees) post-contact with affected fish. Affected fish from both outbreak investigations and the infection trial were examined for the presence of viruses, oomycetes, parasites and bacteria using a combination of techniques and methodologies (including culture-independent cloning of PCR-amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes from lesions), with no potentially causative infectious agent consistently identified. The majority of the cloned phylotypes from both lesion and negative control skin samples were assigned to Acidovorax-like β-Proteobacteria and Methylobacterium-like α-Proteobacteria.


KEY WORDS: RFLP · 16S rRNA · Clone library · Flavobacterium psychrophilum · Red mark syndrome


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Cite this article as: Verner-Jeffreys DW, Pond MJ, Peeler EJ, Rimmer GSE and others (2008) Emergence of cold water strawberry disease of rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss in England and Wales: outbreak investigations and transmission studies. Dis Aquat Org 79:207-218. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao01916

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