DAO 84:89-94 (2009)  -  doi:10.3354/dao02036

Efficacy of select disinfectants at inactivating Ranavirus

Laura K. Bryan1, Charles A. Baldwin2, Matthew J. Gray3, Debra L. Miller2,3,*

1University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA
2Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, University of Georgia, 43 Brighton Road, Tifton, Georgia 31793-1389, USA
3Center for Wildlife Health, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Tennessee,
274 Ellington Plant Sciences Building, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-4563, USA
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: Ranavirus can cause disease in reptiles and amphibians. Because survival time outside of a host remains uncertain, equipment must be disinfected to prevent transmission of ranaviruses. However, disinfectant efficacy against amphibian ranaviruses has not been investigated for chlorhexidine (Nolvasan®), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), or potassium compounds. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of Nolvasan® (0.25, 0.75 and 2.0%), bleach (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%), and Virkon S® (1.0%) at inactivating Ranavirus at 1 and 5 min contact durations. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) (2.0 and 5.0 ppm) was also tested with a 60 min contact time. Nolvasan® at 0.75 and 2.0% and bleach at 3.0 and 5.0% concentration were effective for both contact durations. Virkon S® was effective for both durations, but KMnO4 was not effective at either concentration. Concentrations of Nolvasan®, bleach and Virkon S® that are at least 0.75, 3.0 and 1.0%, respectively, are effective at inactivating Ranavirus after 1 min exposure time.


KEY WORDS: Ranavirus · Amphibians · Disinfection · Chlorhexidine · Pathogen pollution · Potassium peroxymonosulfate · Potassium permanganate · Sodium hypochlorite


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Cite this article as: Bryan LK, Baldwin CA, Gray MJ, Miller DL (2009) Efficacy of select disinfectants at inactivating Ranavirus. Dis Aquat Org 84:89-94

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