DAO 89:117-123 (2010)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02192

Evaluation of Streptococcus iniae killed bacterin and live attenuated vaccines in hybrid striped bass through injection and bath immersion

Jeffrey B. Locke1,2,6, Mike R. Vicknair3, Vaughn E. Ostland3, Victor Nizet1,2,4, John T. Buchanan1,5,*

1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pharmacology and Drug Discovery, University of California, San Diego,
9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0687, La Jolla, California 92093-0687, USA
2Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0208, La Jolla, California 92093-0208, USA
3Kent BioEnergy, 11125 Flintkote Avenue, Suite J, San Diego, California 92121, USA
4Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0657, La Jolla, California 92093-0657, USA
5Aqua Bounty Technologies, 8395 Camino Santa Fe, San Diego, California 92121, USA
6Present address: Trius Therapeutics, 6310 Nancy Ridge Drive, Suite 105, San Diego, California 92121, USA
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: Streptococcus iniae poses a serious threat to finfish aquaculture operations worldwide. Stringent regulatory standards limit the use of antibiotics to treat S. iniae infections; improved vaccination strategies are thus of great interest. We investigated the potential for efficient, non-injectable batch vaccination via the use of live attenuated vaccines. Three attenuated S. iniae strains with genetic mutations eliminating the production of virulence factors—capsular polysaccharide (ΔcpsD), M-like protein (ΔsimA), and phosphoglucomutase (Δ pgmA)—were evaluated in parallel with an adjuvanted, formalin-killed, whole-cell S. iniae bacterin. Juvenile hybrid striped bass (HSB; Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) were vaccinated through intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or bath immersion and held for 800 degree-days prior to challenge with a lethal dose of the virulent wild-type (WT) S. iniae parent strain. The ΔcpsD, Δ pgmA, and bacterin vaccines provided the highest level of vaccination safety (0% mortality), whereas the ΔsimA mutant, although it caused 12 to 16% vaccination-related mortality, was the only vaccine candidate to provide 100% protection in both i.p. and immersion delivery models. Our studies demonstrate the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines for prevention of S. iniae infection, and identify immersion delivery of live vaccines as an attractive option for use in commercial aquaculture settings.


KEY WORDS: Streptococcus iniae · Live attenuated vaccine · Hybrid striped bass · M-like protein · Capsular polysaccharide · Phosphoglucomutase


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Cite this article as: Locke JB, Vicknair MR, Ostland VE, Nizet V, Buchanan JT (2010) Evaluation of Streptococcus iniae killed bacterin and live attenuated vaccines in hybrid striped bass through injection and bath immersion. Dis Aquat Org 89:117-123. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02192

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