DAO 95:31-42 (2011)  -  doi:10.3354/dao02336

Temperature, hydric environment, and prior pathogen exposure alter the experimental severity of chytridiomycosis in boreal toads

Peter J. Murphy1,3,*, Sophie St-Hilaire1, Paul Stephen Corn2

1Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, 650 Memorial Dr., Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8007, USA
2U.S. Geological Survey, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute, Missoula, Montana 59801, USA
3Present address: Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Science, MS 186, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557-0210, USA

ABSTRACT: Prevalence of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), implicated in amphibian population declines worldwide, is associated with habitat moisture and temperature, but few studies have varied these factors and measured the response to infection in amphibian hosts. We evaluated how varying humidity, contact with water, and temperature affected the manifestation of chytridiomycosis in boreal toads Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas and how prior exposure to Bd affects the likelihood of survival after re-exposure, such as may occur seasonally in long-lived species. Humidity did not affect survival or the degree of Bd infection, but a longer time in contact with water increased the likelihood of mortality. After exposure to ~106 Bd zoospores, all toads in continuous contact with water died within 30 d. Moreover, Bd-exposed toads that were disease-free after 64 d under dry conditions, developed lethal chytridiomycosis within 70 d of transfer to wet conditions. Toads in unheated aquaria (mean = 15°C) survived less than 48 d, while those in moderately heated aquaria (mean = 18°C) survived 115 d post-exposure and exhibited behavioral fever, selecting warmer sites across a temperature gradient. We also found benefits of prior Bd infection: previously exposed toads survived 3 times longer than Bd-naïve toads after re-exposure to 106 zoospores (89 vs. 30 d), but only when dry microenvironments were available. This study illustrates how the outcome of Bd infection in boreal toads is environmentally dependent: when continuously wet, high reinfection rates may overwhelm defenses, but periodic drying, moderate warming, and previous infection may allow infected toads to extend their survival.


KEY WORDS: Boreal toads · Disease severity · Chytridiomycosis · Temperature · Moisture · Acquired immunity


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Cite this article as: Murphy PJ, St-Hilaire S, Corn PS (2011) Temperature, hydric environment, and prior pathogen exposure alter the experimental severity of chytridiomycosis in boreal toads. Dis Aquat Org 95:31-42

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