DAO 97:127-134 (2011)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02409

Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama

Vanessa L. Kilburn1,4, Roberto Ibáñez2, David M. Green3,*

1Department of Biology, McGill University, 1205 Docteur Penfield Ave., Montréal, Québec H3A 1B1, Canada
2Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, PO Box 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancón, Republic of Panama
3Redpath Museum, McGill University, 859 Sherbrooke St. W., Montréal, Québec H3A 2K6, Canada
4Present address: 3601 Hillcrest Ave., North Vancouver, British Columbia V7R 4B7, Canada

ABSTRACT: Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is considered to be a disease exclusively of amphibians. However, B. dendrobatidis may also be capable of persisting in the environment, and non-amphibian vectors or hosts may contribute to disease transmission. Reptiles living in close proximity to amphibians and sharing similar ecological traits could serve as vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis, harbouring the organism on their skin without succumbing to disease. We surveyed for the presence of B. dendrobatidis DNA among 211 lizards and 8 snakes at 8 sites at varying elevations in Panama where the syntopic amphibians were at pre-epizootic, epizootic or post-epizootic stages of chytridiomycosis. Detection of B. dendrobatidis DNA was done using qPCR analysis. Evidence of the amphibian pathogen was present at varying intensities in 29 of 79 examined Anolis humilis lizards (32%) and 9 of 101 A. lionotus lizards (9%), and in one individual each of the snakes Pliocercus euryzonus, Imantodes cenchoa, and Nothopsis rugosus. In general, B. dendrobatidis DNA prevalence among reptiles was positively correlated with the infection prevalence among co-occurring anuran amphibians at any particular site (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). These reptiles, therefore, may likely be vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis and could serve as disease transmission agents. Although there is no evidence of B. dendrobatidis disease-induced declines in reptiles, cases of coincidence of reptile and amphibian declines suggest this potentiality. Our study is the first to provide evidence of non-amphibian carriers for B. dendrobatidis in a natural Neotropical environment.

KEY WORDS: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis · Chytridiomycosis · Amphibian pathogen · ­Reservoir host · Lizard · Snake · Reptilia · Neotropics

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Cite this article as: Kilburn VL, Ibáñez R, Green DM (2011) Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama. Dis Aquat Org 97:127-134. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02409

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