DAO 98:11-25 (2012)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02429

Treatment of amphibians infected with chytrid fungus: learning from failed trials with itraconazole, antimicrobial peptides, bacteria, and heat therapy

Douglas C. Woodhams1,*, Corina C. Geiger1, Laura K. Reinert2, Louise A. Rollins-Smith2,3, Brianna Lam4, Reid N. Harris4, Cheryl J. Briggs5, Vance T. Vredenburg6, Jamie Voyles7

1Ecology Group, Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, and 3Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
4Department of Biology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia 22807, USA
5Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9610, USA
6Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132-1722, USA
7Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844, USA

ABSTRACT: Amphibian conservation goals depend on effective disease-treatment protocols. Desirable protocols are species, life stage, and context specific, but currently few treatment options exist for amphibians infected with the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Treatment options, at present, include antifungal drugs and heat therapy, but risks of toxicity and side-effects make these options untenable in some cases. Here, we report on the comparison of several novel treatments with a more generally accepted antifungal treatment in experimental scientific trials to treat Bd-infected frogs including Alytes obstetricans tadpoles and metamorphs, Bufo bufo and Limnodynastes peronii metamorphs, and Lithobates pipiens and Rana muscosa adults. The experimental treatments included commercial antifungal products (itraconazole, mandipropamid, steriplantN, and PIP Pond Plus), antimicrobial skin peptides from the Bd-resistant Pelophylax esculentus, microbial treatments (Pedobacter cryoconitis), and heat therapy (35°C for 24 h). None of the new experimental treatments were considered successful in terms of improving survival; however, these results may advance future research by indicating the limits and potential of the various protocols. Caution in the use of itraconazole is warranted because of observed toxicity in metamorphic and adult frogs, even at low concentrations. Results suggest that rather than focusing on a single cure-all, diverse lines of research may provide multiple options for treating Bd infection in amphibians. Learning from ‘failed treatments’ is essential for the timely achievement of conservation goals and one of the primary aims for a publicly accessible treatment database under development.


KEY WORDS: Alytes obstetricans · Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis · Biotherapy · Bufo bufo · Chytridiomycosis · Disease control · Lithobates pipiens · Probiotic · Rana muscosa


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Cite this article as: Woodhams DC, Geiger CC, Reinert LK, Rollins-Smith LA and others (2012) Treatment of amphibians infected with chytrid fungus: learning from failed trials with itraconazole, antimicrobial peptides, bacteria, and heat therapy. Dis Aquat Org 98:11-25. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02429

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