ESR 23:277-286 (2014)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00574

Modelling the habitat use and distribution of the threatened Javan slow loris Nycticebus javanicus

Alke Voskamp1,2,*, E. Johanna Rode3, Camille N. Z. Coudrat3, Wirdateti4, Abinawanto5, Robert J. Wilson1, K. Anne-Isola Nekaris3

1University of Exeter Cornwall Campus, Treliever Road, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, UK
2Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
3Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP,UK
4Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia
5University of Indonesia, Kampus UI, Depok 16424, Indonesia
*‑Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: The Javan slow loris Nycticebus javanicus is threatened by habitat decline and is classified as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. Information on its distribution and habitat preferences is still lacking, and so far the distribution of the Javan slow loris has only been quantified via ecological niche modelling based on museum specimens and remotely derived environmental layers. We aimed to refine the modelled predictions and to verify the distribution of the Javan slow loris by collecting up-to-date occurrence data, which are fundamental for conservation and management of the species. Furthermore, we identify variables that predict its presence and give recommendations for future survey sites and conservation actions. From April to June 2012 we collected data on species presence, habitat preferences and levels of disturbance at priority sites throughout Java. We present a map of the predicted distribution of N. javanicus based on a maximum entropy model. We investigated habitat preferences using R (v. 2.14.1). During the study we sighted 52 lorises in 9 out of 14 investigated areas. The amount of bamboo in a forest had a positive effect on the encounter rates. Furthermore, we made 86% of sightings in forest plantations and agricultural areas located outside protected areas, with the majority located in areas with measured high levels of disturbance. We suggest that further ecological studies are needed to understand if and why densities may be higher in anthropogenically disturbed areas.


KEY WORDS: Lorisidae · Maximum entropy · Nocturnal primate · Java · Species conservation


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Cite this article as: Voskamp A, Rode EJ, Coudrat CNZ, Wirdateti , Abinawanto , Wilson RJ, Nekaris KAI (2014) Modelling the habitat use and distribution of the threatened Javan slow loris Nycticebus javanicus. Endang Species Res 23:277-286. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00574

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