MEPS 156:299-309 (1997)  -  doi:10.3354/meps156299

Atmospheric input of lead into the German Bight - a high resolution measurement and model case study

K. Heinke Schlünzen1,*, Thomas Stahlschmidt2, Andreas Rebers2, Ulrike Niemeier1, Michael Kriews3, Walter Dannecker2

1Zentrum für Meeres- und Klimaforschung der Universität Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Bundesstr. 55, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany
2Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany
3Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Postfach 120161, D-27515 Bremerhaven, Germany

The atmospheric input of lead into the German Bight is calculated from measured atmospheric concentrations, from modelled as well as measurement-derived deposition velocities, and from measured wet deposition values, with a temporal resolution between 6 and 24 h. The measurements were taken at several coastal sites and on a ship in the German Bight during a 1 wk drift experiment in April 1991. The applied model is a 3-dimensional nonhydrostatic atmospheric mesoscale model. The calculated input data depend on deposition velocities and integration time. Due to variation in dry deposition the atmospheric input values can differ by a factor of 3. Total deposition values and thus atmospheric input data can differ by a factor of 10. Calculated backward trajectories show that the observed time-lag in the occurrence of concentration maxima can be explained by the travel time of the advected air masses between the measurement sites. By use of backward trajectories and results of the mesoscale model the measured values are associated with source areas for a day with very high atmospheric lead concentrations. It is shown that up to 50% of the contaminants can reach the German Bight via long-range transport. Mesoscale atmospheric phenomena also influence the wind field and the concentrations.


North Sea · German Bight · Atmospheric input · Dry deposition · Wet deposition · Atmospheric lead concentration · Mesoscale model


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