MEPS 303:259-267 (2005) - doi:10.3354/meps303259
Maternal and paternal influences on early life history traits and processes of Baltic cod Gadus morhua
Edward A. Trippel1, *, Gerd Kraus2, Friedrich W. Köster2, 3
ABSTRACT: Embryo survival, larval standard length, yolk-sac area, yolk utilization and resistance to starvation were significantly influenced by the female parent and the interaction between both parents of Baltic Sea cod Gadus morhua in a gamete factorial cross of 3 females and 5 males in all possible combinations. The proportion of variance in embryonic survivorship that was due to maternity during incubation was significant during the first 4 d, but was insignificant during the 5 to 9 d interval. During the 5 to 9 d interval, the malefemale interaction was significant. Standard lengths at hatch and 5 d post hatch and specific growth rate of unfed yolk-sac larvae were strongly influenced by the female. Equivalent amounts of variation in larval resistance to starvation were explained by maternity and bi-parental interaction. Paternity alone did not explain a significant amount of variation for the traits or processes examined. The bi-parental interactions reported demonstrate a females choice of mate could significantly influence the early life survivorship of Baltic cod offspring.
KEY WORDS: Parental effects · Hatch · Larvae · Growth · Starvation · Baltic cod
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