MEPS 462:287-301 (2012) - doi:10.3354/meps09732
Passive thermal refugia provided warm water for Florida manatees during the severe winter of 2009−2010
B. M. Stith1,*, D. H. Slone2, M. de Wit3, H. H. Edwards3, C. A. Langtimm2, E. D. Swain4, L. E. Soderqvist5, J. P. Reid2
ABSTRACT: Haloclines induced by freshwater inflow over tidal water have been identified as an important mechanism for maintaining warm water in passive thermal refugia (PTR) used by Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris during winter in extreme southwestern Florida. Record-setting cold during winter 2009−2010 resulted in an unprecedented number of manatee deaths, adding to concerns that PTR may provide inadequate thermal protection during severe cold periods. Hydrological data from 2009"