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CR 10:193-200 (1998)  -  doi:10.3354/cr010193

Analysis of long-term European temperature records: 1751-1995

R. C. Balling Jr1,*, R. S. Vose1, Gerd-Rainer Weber2

1Office of Climatology and Department of Geography, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1508, USA
2Gesamtverband des Deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Gluckaufhaus, Friedrichstraße 1, D-45128 Essen, Germany

ABSTRACT: Monthly temperature records are assembled for 57 European stations, with some of the records extending nearly two and a half centuries. Our analyses reveal a statistically significant warming of approximately 0.5°C over the period 1751 to 1995. The period of most rapid warming in Europe occurred between 1890 and 1950, and there is quantitative evidence that some of the observed warming during this 60 yr period may be related to urbanization or other local effects; no warming was observed in the most recent half century. Urban effects or other local contaminations in the earliest records could not be quantified due to a dearth of reliable comparable data. The long-term warming in Europe has been confined to the low-sun months, and the coldest period since 1751 occurred near 1890.

KEY WORDS: Europe · Temperature records · Urban effects

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