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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 108:129-136 (2014)  -  DOI:

Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

YaoWu Fu1, QiZhong Zhang1,*, De-Hai Xu2, Huan Xia1, XinXing Cai1, Bin Wang1, Jinghan Liang1

1Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, Engineering Research Center of Tropical and Subtropical Aquatic Ecological Engineering Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Aquatic Eutrophication and Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Guangzhou 510632, PR China
2USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Aquatic Animal Health Research Unit, 990 Wire Road, Auburn, Alabama 36832-4352, USA
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), an important fish parasite, can cause significant losses in aquaculture. To find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of white mulberry Morus alba was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. Bark was powdered and extracted with 1 of 5 organic solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, or methanol. The extracts were concentrated, dissolved in 0.1% (v/v) DMSO, and used for anti-Ich trials. Acetone and ethyl acetate extracts significantly reduced the survival of Ich tomonts and theronts. In vitro, acetone extract at 25 mg l-1 killed all non-encysted tomonts, at 50 mg l-1 eradicated all encysted tomonts, and at 8 mg l-1 caused mortality of all theronts. Ethyl acetate extract at 50 mg l-1 eliminated all non-encysted tomonts, at 100 mg l-1 killed all encysted tomonts and terminated tomont reproduction, and at 8 mg l-1 killed all theronts. Low concentrations (2 and 4 mg l-1) of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts could not kill all theronts after 4 h exposure, but a significant decrease in theront infectivity was observed following 30 min of pretreatment with the extracts. The 96 h LC50 values of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts to grass carp were 79.46 and 361.05 mg l-1, i.e. much higher than effective doses for killing Ich theronts (8 mg l-1 for both extracts) and non-encysted tomonts (12.5 and 25 mg l-1, respectively). Thus M. alba extract may be a potential new, safe, and efficacious drug to control Ich.

KEY WORDS: Antiparasitic effect · White mulberry · Ich · Lethal dose · Acetone · Ethyl acetate

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Cite this article as: Fu Y, Zhang Q, Xu DH, Xia H, Cai X, Wang B, Liang J (2014) Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp. Dis Aquat Org 108:129-136.

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