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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 118:55-63 (2016)  -  DOI:

Bonamia ostreae in the New Zealand oyster Ostrea chilensis: a new host and geographic record for this haplosporidian parasite

Henry S. Lane1,*, Stephen Charles Webb2, John Duncan2

1Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7010, New Zealand
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Previous reports of the haplosporidian parasite Bonamia ostreae have been restricted to the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, and both eastern and western North America. This species is reported for the first time in New Zealand infecting the flat oyster Ostrea chilensis. Histological examination of 149 adult oysters identified 119 (79.9%) infected with Bonamia microcells. Bonamia generic PCR of several oysters followed by DNA sequencing of a 300 bp portion of the 18S rDNA gene produced a 100% match with that of B. ostreae. All DNA-sequenced products also produced a B. ostreae PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profile. Bonamia species-specific PCRs further detected single infections of B. exitiosa (2.7%), B. ostreae (40.3%), and concurrent infections (53.7%) with these 2 Bonamia species identifying overall a Bonamia prevalence of 96.6%. Detailed histological inspection revealed 2 microcell types. An infection identified by PCR as B. ostreae histologically presented small microcells (mean ± SE diameter = 1.28 ± 0.16 µm, range = 0.9-2 µm, n = 60) commonly with eccentric nuclei. A B. exitiosa infection exhibited larger microcells (mean ± SE diameter = 2.12 ± 0.27 µm, range = 1.5-4 µm, n = 60) with more concentric nuclei. Concurrent infections of both Bonamia species, as identified by PCR, exhibited both types of microcells. DNA barcoding of the B. ostreae-infected oyster host confirmed the identification as O. chilensis. A suite of other parasites that accompany O. chilensis are reported here for the first time in mixed infection with B. ostreae including apicomplexan X (76.5%), Microsporidium rapuae (0.7%) and Bucephalus longicornutus (30.2%).

KEY WORDS: Bonamiosis · Flat oyster · First report · Range extension · Restriction fragment length polymorphism · RFLP

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Cite this article as: Lane HS, Webb SC, Duncan J (2016) Bonamia ostreae in the New Zealand oyster Ostrea chilensis: a new host and geographic record for this haplosporidian parasite. Dis Aquat Org 118:55-63.

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