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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 144:75-87 (2021)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03575

Toxic effects in Aphanomyces brasiliensis and zebrafish embryos caused by oomyceticides

Karen de Souza Ferreira1, Leonardo Tachibana1, Débora Rodrigues da Silva Colombo1, Sarah Cristina Oliveira da Paixão2, Cláudia Maris Ferreira1, Cíntia Badaró-Pedroso1,*

1Fisheries Institute—APTA—SAA, São Paulo, SP 04014-900, Brazil
2Botanical Institute—SIMA, São Paulo, SP 04301-902, Brazil
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: In fish farming, high losses occur during egg incubation and larviculture due to diseases caused by oomycetes. This study aimed to identify the oomycete species that occurs in zebrafish Danio rerio eggs and to evaluate the oomyceticidal effect of copper sulfate, bronopol and methylene blue on the mycelial growth of this organism, as well as to determine the lethal and sublethal toxicity of these compounds in embryos of D. rerio. The isolates were cultivated in yeast-starch medium to determine the concentration necessary to inhibit mycelial growth by 50% (IC50) and 100% (minimum oomyceticidal concentration) after a 96 h exposure to these compounds. In addition, tests with D. rerio eggs were conducted to determine the lethal concentrations for 50% of the organisms (96h-LC50), and the concentrations that inhibited 17% of the eggs hatching (96h-IC17) after 96 h. The organism responsible for the mortality of D. rerio eggs was classified by classical and molecular methods as Aphanomyces brasiliensis, representing the first report of this pathogen in zebrafish eggs. IC50 values could be determined for both bronopol and copper sulfate, whereas methylene blue had low effectiveness against the oomycete. Copper showed high toxicity to D. rerio eggs at low concentrations, while methylene blue and bronopol toxicity was low and similar to each other. The use of bronopol at a concentration of 4.8 mg l-1 for the treatment of zebrafish eggs allows controlling the pathology without causing deleterious effects to the treated organisms.


KEY WORDS: Oomycetes · Danio rerio · Copper sulfate · Bronopol · Methylene blue · Toxic effect · Fish embryo toxicity test


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Cite this article as: Ferreira KdeS, Tachibana L, Colombo DRdaS, Paixão SCOda, Ferreira CM, Badaró-Pedroso C (2021) Toxic effects in Aphanomyces brasiliensis and zebrafish embryos caused by oomyceticides. Dis Aquat Org 144:75-87. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao03575

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