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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 39:21-27 (1999)  -  doi:10.3354/dao039021

Results from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon culture ponds stocked with postlarvae PCR-positive or -negative for white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV)

Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul*

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

ABSTRACT: Commercial, intensive, earthen shrimp ponds (188) in southern Thailand were stocked with postlarvae (PL) of Penaeus monodon that had tested positive or negative for white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. All the PL were grossly healthy. At 2 wk intervals after stocking, shrimp from each pond were examined for gross WSSV lesions and tested for WSSV by PCR. Shrimp from all the ponds stocked with WSSV-PCR-positive PL (Group 0, n = 43) eventually showed gross signs of white-spot disease (WSD) at an average of 40 d after stocking. Of the remaining ponds stocked with WSSV-PCR-negative PL (n = 145), some remained WSSV-PCR-negative throughout the study (Group 5, n = 52), while others (93) became WSSV-PCR-positive after stocking, during the first month (Group 1, n = 23), second month (Group 2, n = 40), third month (Group 3, n = 24), or fourth month (Group 4, n = 6). Crop failure was defined as a pond drain or forced harvest before 14 wk or 98 d of cultivation. For Group 0 the proportion of ponds failing was 0.953, while it was only 0.019 for Group 5. Thus, the relative risk of failure for Group 0 was approximately 50 times that of Group 5. The relative risk of failure for Group 0 was also 3 times that for ponds stocked with WSSV-PCR-negative PL. Obviously, not all WSSV outbreaks resulted in crop failure. Of the 93 ponds stocked with PCR-negative PL that later yielded WSSV-PCR-positive shrimp, 53% reached successful harvest. The study showed that PCR screening of PL and rejection of WSSV-positive batches before stocking could greatly improve the chances of a successful harvest.

KEY WORDS: Penaeus monodon · Black tiger shrimp · Culture · White-spot disease · Polymerase chain reaction · White-spot syndrome virus · WSSV

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