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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 40:101-107 (2000)  -  doi:10.3354/dao040101

Toxic factors of Vibrio strains pathogenic to shrimp

Cyrille Goarant1,*, José Herlin1, Raphaël Brizard1, Anne-Laure Marteau1, Claude Martin2, Bernard Martin2

1Laboratoire de Recherche Aquacole IFREMER en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Station d¹Aquaculture de Saint Vincent, BP 2059, 98845 Nouméa Cedex, New Caledonia
2Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, Université Française du Pacifique, Centre Universitaire de Polynésie Française, BP 6570, FAA¹A Aéroport, Tahiti, French Polynesia

ABSTRACT: Vibriosis is a major disease problem in shrimp aquaculture. ŒSyndrome 93¹ is a seasonal juvenile vibriosis caused by Vibrio penaeicida which affects Litopenaeus stylirostris in grow-out ponds in New Caledonia. This study assessed the toxic activities of extracellular products (ECPs) from V. penaeicida, V. alginolyticus and V. nigripulchritudo using in vivo injections in healthy juvenile L. stylirostris (= Penaeus stylirostris) and in vitro assays on shrimp primary cell cultures and the fish cell line epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC). Toxic effects of ECPs were demonstrated for all pathogenic Vibrio strains tested both in vivo and in vitro, but for shrimp only; no effect was observed on the fish cell line. ECP toxicity for New Caledonian V. penaeicida was found only after cultivation at low temperature (20°C) and not at higher temperature (30°C). This points to the fact that ŒSyndrome 93¹ episodes are triggered by temperature drops. The assays used here demonstrate the usefulness of primary shrimp cell cultures to study virulence mechanisms of shrimp pathogenic bacteria.

KEY WORDS: Vibrio · Vibrio penaeicida · Shrimp · Extracellular products · Temperature

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