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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 43:81-89 (2000)  -  doi:10.3354/dao043081

Cloning of the fish cell line SSN-1 for piscine nodaviruses

T. Iwamoto1, T. Nakai1,*, K. Mori2, M. Arimoto2, I. Furusawa3

1Fish Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8528, Japan
2Kamiura Station, Japan Sea-Farming Association, Oita 879-2602, Japan
3Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
*Corresponding author. E-mail:

ABSTRACT: Six cell clones were derived from the SSN-1 cell line, which is composed of a mixed cell population and persistently infected with a C-type retrovirus (SnRV). These clones were susceptible to 4 piscine nodavirus strains belonging to different genotypes (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV [striped jack, redspotted grouper, tiger puffer and barfin flounder nervous necrosis viruses]). Three clones, designated A-6, E-9, and E-11, were highly permissive to nodavirus infection and production. The virus-induced cytopathic effects appeared as cytoplasmic vacuoles and intensive disintegration at 3 to 5 d post-incubation. These observations were highly reproducible and formed the basis for a successful virus titration system. Quantitative analysis using the cloned E-11 cell line clearly revealed differences in the optimal growth temperatures among the 4 genotypic variants: 25 to 30°C for strain SGWak97 (RGNNV), 20 to 25°C for strain SJNag93 (SJNNV), 20°C for strain TPKag93 (TPNNV), and 15 to 20°C for strain JFIwa98 (BFNNV). Electron microscopy demonstrated SnRV retrovirus particles only in A-6 and E-9 cells, but PCR amplification for the pol gene and LTR region of the proviral DNA indicated the presence of the retrovirus in the other clones, including E 11. The cell clones obtained in the present study will be more useful for qualitative and quantitative analyses of piscine nodaviruses than the SSN-1 cell line.

KEY WORDS: Nodavirus · Viral nervous necrosis, VNN · SSN-1 cell line · Cell cloning · C-type retrovirus · Snakehead retrovirus

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