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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 47:13-23 (2001)  -  doi:10.3354/dao047013

Development and application of monoclonal antibodies for the detection of white spot syndrome virus of penaeid shrimp

B. T. Poulos*, C. R. Pantoja, D. Bradley-Dunlop, J. Aguilar, D. V. Lightner

University of Arizona, Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA

ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of penaeid shrimp. The virus isolate used for immunization was obtained from China in 1994 and was passaged in Penaeus vannamei. The 4 hybridomas selected for characterization all produced MAbs that reacted with the 28 kD structural protein by Western blot analysis. The MAbs tested in dot-immunoblot assays were capable of detecting the virus in hemolymph samples collected from moribund shrimp during an experimentally induced WSSV infection. Two of the MAbs were chosen for development of serological detection methods for WSSV. The 2 MAbs detected WSSV infections in fresh tissue impression smears using a fluorescent antibody for final detection. A rapid immunohistochemical method using the MAbs on Davidson¹s fixed tissue sections identified WSSV-infected cells and tissues in a pattern similar to that seen with digoxigenin-labeled WSSV-specific gene probes. A whole mount assay of pieces of fixed tissue without paraffin embedding and sectioning was also successfully used for detecting the virus. None of the MAbs reacted with hemolymph from specific pathogen-free shrimp or from shrimp infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, yellow head virus or Taura syndrome virus. In Western blot analysis, the 2 MAbs did not detect any serological differences among WSSV isolates from China, Thailand, India, Texas, South Carolina or Panama. Additionally, the MAbs did not detect a serological difference between WSSV isolated from penaeid shrimp and WSSV isolated from freshwater crayfish.

KEY WORDS: White spot syndrome virus · Monoclonal antibodies · Immunodetection

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