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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 56:145-154 (2003)  -  doi:10.3354/dao056145

Mapping multiple genetic loci associated with Ceratomyxa shasta resistance in Oncorhynchus mykiss

Krista M. Nichols1,3,*, Jerri Bartholomew2, Gary H. Thorgaard1

1School of Biological Sciences and Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-4236, USA
2Center for Fish Disease Research, Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3804, USA
3Present address: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Conservation Biology Division, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, Washington 98112, USA

ABSTRACT: Ceratomyxa shasta is enzootic to some rivers of the Pacific Northwest and California, and has caused extensive mortalities of salmonids, the only known host of the actinosporean stage of the pathogen. Mortalities from C. shasta are induced by severe inflammation and necrosis of the intestinal tract, and no therapeutants have been discovered for the treatment of ceratomyxosis. Inheritance studies by previous investigators suggested that C. shasta resistance is genetically controlled, but none have revealed the number and locations of gene regions associated with resistance. Here, we characterized differences in resistance among clonal lines, and used line crosses between clonal lines with resistance differences for a genetic analysis of C. shasta resistance in Oncorhynchus mykiss, following a short term in situ exposure to the pathogen. We found that Oregon State University (OSU) x Arlee (ARL) clonal hybrids were highly susceptible, while OSU x Clearwater (CW) hybrids were highly resistant to C. shasta. Doubled haploids, produced by androgenesis from an F1 hybrid between the OSU and CW lines, were evaluated for the co-segregation of molecular markers and resistance phenotype. Amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers, used to construct a genetic linkage map in this cross, were tested for associations with resistance expressed as absolute survival (binary trait) and days to death (survival analysis). Segregation of the resistance phenotype suggested that the resistance was inherited as a single Mendelian locus, but the binary trait failed to map to a single genomic location. Markers identified in single-marker analyses were used in multiple-regression model selection, within both the linear regression and Cox proportional-hazards survival analysis frameworks, to determine the number and potential location of loci simultaneously contributing to variation in the survival phenotypes of doubled-haploid progeny. We found multiple genomic loci associated with C. shasta resistance through these models, confirming studies by previous investigators that suggested C. shasta resistance is polygenic.

KEY WORDS: Ceratomyxa shasta · Oncorhynchus mykiss · Survival analysis · Quantitative trait loci

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