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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 57:11-17 (2003)  -  doi:10.3354/dao057011

Occurrence, histopathology and experimental transmission of hepatopancreatic parvovirus infection in Penaeus monodon postlarvae

E. S. Catap1,*, C. R. Lavilla-Pitogo1, Y. Maeno1,2, R. D. Traviña1

1Fish Health Section, SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department, Tigbauan, 5021, Iloilo, Philippines
2Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research Agency, Taira 1551-8, Nagasaki 851-2213, Japan

ABSTRACT: Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) was detected in samples of Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL-13, PL-18, PL-19, PL-26) from 2 hatcheries in 2 provinces (Samar and Iloilo) in the Philippines. The percentage of infection was 20 to 100% in postlarvae obtained from the hatchery in Samar in August 2001. Postlarvae from the hatchery in Iloilo, sampled in October and November 2001, had 70 to 99% HPV infection. Wet mounts of squashed hepatopancreatic tissue stained with malachite green (wet-mount technique) and histopathology revealed the presence of large, usually single, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the distal tubules, which led to displacement of the nucleoli. Light microscopy showed ovoid to spherical inclusion bodies, 5 to 11 µm in diameter. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the inclusion bodies were composed of electron-dense granular material and virions. The virions appeared roughly spherical and averaged 18 to 22 nm in diameter. An experiment was undertaken to induce HPV infection by feeding P. monodon postlarvae with virus-infected postlarvae. P. monodon postlarvae (PL-16), initially determined as free from HPV, were found HPV-positive 24 h after being fed with infected material. The percentage of infection ranged from 30% at Day 1 post-infection (p.i.) to 100% at Day 7 p.i. determined by the wet-mount technique and by histopathology. This is the first report of a successful horizontal transmission of HPV in P. monodon postlarvae.

KEY WORDS: Hepatopancreatic parvovirus · HPV · Penaeus monodon · Postlarvae · Experimental infection · Histopathology · Wet-mount technique · Horizontal transmission

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