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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 57:151-155 (2003)  -  doi:10.3354/dao057151

Effect of potassium permanganate stress on immune resistance and susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Winton Cheng1, Ching-Hsien Wang2, Jiann-Chu Chen3,*

1Department of Aquaculture, and 2Institute of Tropic Agriculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan 912, ROC
3Department of Aquaculture, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan 202, ROC
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: This work is part of a continuing series of investigations on the effect of commonly used aquaculture chemicals on the immune resistance and susceptibility of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii to Lactococcus garvieae. The methodology has been described in earlier publications of the series. Potassium permanganate at 1.0 mg l-1 in tryptic soy broth (TSB) had no effect on the growth rate of L. garvieae. The mortality of M. rosenbergii challenged with 4 × 106 colony-forming units (cfu) prawn-1 of TSB-grown L. garvieae was significantly greater than that of challenged controls. Addition of potassium permanganate at 1.0 mg l-1 in TSB significantly increased the virulence of L. garvieae to M. rosenbergii. Exposure of M. rosenbergii to potassium permanganate prior to challenge with TSB-grown L. garvieae at 4 × 106 and 3 × 106 cfu prawn-1 revealed that 96 h mortality was significantly lower for prawns held in water containing 0.3 mg l-1 of the chemical than for prawns in water containing 1.0 mg l-1 or no chemical. Potassium permanganate caused no significant changes in total hemocyte counts and differential hemocyte counts, compared to the control treatments. However, a concentration of 1.0 mg l-1 or more for 96 h resulted in decreased phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency. Respiratory burst increased with exposure to 0.3 mg l-1. In conclusion, treatment with potassium permanganate at 0.3 mg l-1 was effective in reducing M. rosenbergii mortality from L. garvieae infection, but higher concentrations had a negative effect, probably due to reduced prawn defenses.

KEY WORDS: Macrobrachium rosenbergii · Lactococcus garvieae · Potassium permanganate · Hemocyte count · Phenoloxidase activity · Respiratory burst · Phagocytosis

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