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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 62:217-226 (2004)  -  doi:10.3354/dao062217

Efficacy and toxicity of orally administratedanti-coccidial drugs for innovative treatments of Myxobolus sp. infection in Puntazzo puntazzo

F. Athanassopoulou1,*, E. Karagouni2, E. Dotsika2 , V. Ragias3, J. Tavla4,P. Christofilloyanis4, I. Vatsos5

1Laboratory of Ichthyology & Fish Pathology, University of Thessaly, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,School of Health Sciences, 221 Trikalon Street, 431 00 Karditsa, Greece
2Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vassilisis Sofias Avenue, 115 21 Athens, Greece
3Centre of Veterinary Establishments of Thessaloniki, Institute of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases,Laboratory of Pathology of Aquatic Organisms, 80 26th October Street, 546 27 Thessaloniki, Greece
4Aquark Aquaculture Consultants, 143 Papagou Avenue, 157 73 Athens, Greece
5Selonda Aquaculture, 231 Singrou Street, 171 21 Athens, Greece

ABSTRACT: This study tested drugs and therapeutic compounds to determine effective commercial treatment for fishes infected with myxosporeans. Two series of shore-based experiments and 1 field trial were performed. For the shore-based experiments we used Puntazzo puntazzo (ca. 20 g wt) with kidneys infected with Myxobolus sp. Initially, 6 different doses of Fumagillin, 2 doses of Toltrazuril, and 1 dose of Amprolium, ESB3 and Salinomycin were tested. In the second shore-based experiment, infected fish were treated with Origanum essential oils, Toltrazuril with propylene glycol, Amprolium, and a combination of Salinomycin 12% + Amprolium (SA). In the field trial, P. puntazzo (ca. 165 g) infected with the parasite were treated with SA, Origanum essential oils and Fumagillin. In all trials, the drugs were added to the feed and administered according to the selected regimen. Their efficacy was evaluated in terms of mortality (acceptable level was <3%), pathology and prevalence rate of Myxobolus sp. Lesions were observed only in fish treated with Fumagillin and Toltrazuril. Pathology due to treatment with Fumagillin was observed only at doses > 6 mg kg–1 body wt for 6 wk in the interstitial renal tissue, where slight inflammation arose. The highest dose tested (25 mg kg–1) also produced necrosis in the interstitial tissue, degeneration of the epithelial cells of the tubules and a reduction in melanomacrophage centre numbers. The SA combination proved the most effective treatment for Myxobolus sp. infection of P. puntazzo as (1) the therapeutic regimen and commercial product was not toxic and (2) a significant reduction occurred in the prevalence rate.

KEY WORDS: Puntazzo puntazzo · Anti-myxosporean treatment · Histopathology

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