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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 82:187-194 (2008)  -  DOI:

Chytridiomycosis in frogs of Mount Gede Pangrango, Indonesia

M. D. Kusrini1,*, L. F. Skerratt2, S. Garland3, L. Berger2, W. Endarwin1

1Departemen Konservasi Sumberdaya Hutan dan Ekowisata, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Darmaga, PO Box 168, Bogor 1600, Indonesia
2Amphibian Disease Ecology Group, School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia
3Amphibian Disease Ecology Group, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia

ABSTRACT: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a fungus recognised as one of the causes of global amphibian population declines. To assess its occurrence, we conducted PCR diagnostic assays of 147 swab samples, from 13 species of frogs from Mount Gede Pangrango National Park, Indonesia. Four swab samples, from Rhacophorus javanus, Rana chalconota, Leptobrachium hasseltii and Limnonectes microdiscus, were positive for Bd and had low to moderate levels of infection. The sample from L. hasseltii was from a tadpole with mouthpart deformities and infection was confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. An additional sample from Leptophryne cruentata showed a very low level of infection (≤1 zoospore equivalent). This is the first record of Bd in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia, dramatically extending the global distribution of Bd, with important consequences for international amphibian disease control, conservation and trade. Consistent with declines in amphibian populations caused by Bd in other parts of the world, evidence exists for the decline and possible extirpation of amphibian populations at high elevations and some decline with recovery of populations at lower elevations on this mountain. Therefore, it is essential to manage Bd in Indonesia where it is likely to be threatening amphibian populations. This will require a national strategy to mitigate the spread of Bd in Indonesia and neighboring countries as well as the impact of that spread. It is also important to collect information on the extent of the impact of Bd on frog populations in Indonesia.

KEY WORDS: Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis · Chytridiomycosis · Indonesia · Southeast Asia · Emerging infectious disease

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Cite this article as: Kusrini MD, Skerratt LF, Garland S, Berger L, Endarwin W (2008) Chytridiomycosis in frogs of Mount Gede Pangrango, Indonesia. Dis Aquat Org 82:187-194.

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