Inter-Research > DAO > v94 > n2 > p167-172  
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 94:167-172 (2011)  -  DOI:

In vitro treatments for the theront stage of the ­ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans

S. M. Picón-Camacho1, M. R. Ruiz de Ybáñez2, A. S. Holzer3, M. Arizcun Arizcun4, P. Muñoz2,*

1Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
2Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain
3Cavanilles Institute of Evolutive Biology and Biodiversity, University of Valencia 22085, 46071 Valencia, Spain
4Spanish Institute of Oceanography, Oceanographic Centre of Murcia, Planta de cultivos marinos,
30860 Puerto de Mazarrón, Spain
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: The ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans Brown, 1951, the ‘marine white spot’, causes one of the most important parasitic fish diseases, with extensive losses every year in mariculture and in the ornamental fish industry. In the present study, we explore the in vitro use of 8 different compounds against the theront (infective) stage of C. irritans; these compounds include extracts of natural products (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), L-DOPA, papain), peracetic acid-based compounds (Proxitane® 5:23 and 15% peracetic acid, PAA), quinine-based compounds (quinacrine hydrochloride and chloroquine diphosphate) and hydrogen peroxide. All of these compounds had an effect on theront survival; however, only EGCG caused significant theront mortality when applied in doses ≥50 mg l–1 and over a period of 3 h; papain caused a maximum theront mortality of <50%. We discuss the type of application and potential utility of the compounds tested as part of a management control strategy for C. irritans infections in marine aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry.

KEY WORDS: Marine white spot · Chemotherapy · Epigallocatechin gallate · Peracetic acid · Quinine · Fish · Parasite

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Cite this article as: Picón-Camacho SM, Ruiz de Ybáñez MR, Holzer AS, Arizcun Arizcun M, Muñoz P (2011) In vitro treatments for the theront stage of the ­ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans. Dis Aquat Org 94:167-172.

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