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ESR 35:141-157 (2018)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00882

Herd demography, sexual segregation and the effects of forest management on Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

Katie L. Journeaux1,2,*, Penny C. Gardner1,2, Hong Ye Lim2,3, Jocelyn Goon Ee Wern2, Benoît Goossens1,2,4,5,*

1Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Biomedical Sciences Building, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3AX, UK
2Danau Girang Field Centre, c/o Sabah Wildlife Department, Wisma Muis, 88100 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
3Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
4Sabah Wildlife Department, Wisma Muis, 88100 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
5Sustainable Places Research Institute, Cardiff University, 33 Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3BA, UK
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Between 1973 and 2010, 39.5% of Sabah’s (Malaysian Borneo) natural forest cover was lost to deforestation and conversion to agriculture, therefore the remaining population of endangered Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi is being driven towards extinction. The Bornean banteng’s herd demography, sexual segregation and the effects of forest management were investigated at 393 camera locations in 6 forest reserves using generalised estimating equations (GEE) fitted via a generalised linear model (GLM). A total of 43344 camera trap nights and 832 independent banteng events were captured at 93 locations. The identification of 183 bantengs included 22 herds (>1 individual) and 12 solitary bulls, with a herd size range of 2 to 21. Significantly larger herds were observed in forest with <8 yr of post-logging regeneration (PLR), whereas herds were smaller in forest with <3, 4 and 16 yr of PLR. Within these forests, herds were significantly larger along logging roads than in open sites and on forest trails. Herds were significantly larger in upland compared to lowland dipterocarp forest, but significantly smaller when closer to the forest border. Bachelor herds were observed as frequently as mixed-sex herds, and there was a significantly higher capture frequency of female herds in the dry season, supporting the theory of sexual segregation. Frequency of calf births was highest in March and September, and calf captures peaked in June and July. This study contributes to a better understanding of banteng ecology, and will assist in the production of effective management strategies aimed at providing suitable habitat for re-population and enabling banteng population persistence.


KEY WORDS: Endangered species · Bos javanicus lowi · Forest management · Demography · Sexual segregation · Camera trapping


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Cite this article as: Journeaux KL, Gardner PC, Lim HY, Wern JGE, Goossens B (2018) Herd demography, sexual segregation and the effects of forest management on Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Endang Species Res 35:141-157. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00882

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