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Endangered Species Research

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ESR 44:291-325 (2021)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr01115

REVIEW
Marine mammal conservation: over the horizon

Sarah E. Nelms1,*, Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto2,3, John P. Y. Arnould4, Isabel C. Avila5, Susan Bengtson Nash6, Elizabeth Campbell1,2, Matt I. D. Carter7, Timothy Collins8, Rohan J. C. Currey9, Camila Domit10, Valentina Franco-Trecu11, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes12, Eric Gilman13, Robert G. Harcourt14, Ellen M. Hines15, A. Rus Hoelzel16, Sascha K. Hooker7, David W. Johnston17, Nachiket Kelkar18, Jeremy J. Kiszka19, Kristin L. Laidre20, Jeffrey C. Mangel1,2, Helene Marsh21, Sara M. Maxwell22, Aubrie B. Onoufriou23,24, Daniel M. Palacios25,26, Graham J. Pierce1,27, Louisa S. Ponnampalam28, Lindsay J. Porter29, Debbie J. F. Russell7,30, Karen A. Stockin31, Dipani Sutaria22, Nina Wambiji32, Caroline R. Weir33, Ben Wilson34, Brendan J. Godley1

1Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK Addresses for other authors are given in the Supplement at www.int-res.com/articles/suppl/n044p291_supp.pdf
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Marine mammals can play important ecological roles in aquatic ecosystems, and their presence can be key to community structure and function. Consequently, marine mammals are often considered indicators of ecosystem health and flagship species. Yet, historical population declines caused by exploitation, and additional current threats, such as climate change, fisheries bycatch, pollution and maritime development, continue to impact many marine mammal species, and at least 25% are classified as threatened (Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable) on the IUCN Red List. Conversely, some species have experienced population increases/recoveries in recent decades, reflecting management interventions, and are heralded as conservation successes. To continue these successes and reverse the downward trajectories of at-risk species, it is necessary to evaluate the threats faced by marine mammals and the conservation mechanisms available to address them. Additionally, there is a need to identify evidence-based priorities of both research and conservation needs across a range of settings and taxa. To that effect we: (1) outline the key threats to marine mammals and their impacts, identify the associated knowledge gaps and recommend actions needed; (2) discuss the merits and downfalls of established and emerging conservation mechanisms; (3) outline the application of research and monitoring techniques; and (4) highlight particular taxa/populations that are in urgent need of focus.


KEY WORDS: Conservation · Marine mammals · Priority setting · Management · Research techniques · Threats


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Cite this article as: Nelms SE, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Arnould JPY, Avila IC and others (2021) Marine mammal conservation: over the horizon. Endang Species Res 44:291-325. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr01115

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