Inter-Research > ESR > v44 > p89-103  
ESR
Endangered Species Research

via Mailchimp

ESR 44:89-103 (2021)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr01091

Exposure to permethrin or chlorpyrifos causes differential dose- and time-dependent behavioral effects at early larval stages of an endangered teleost species

Paige C. Mundy1, Kara E. Huff Hartz2, Corie A. Fulton2, Michael J. Lydy2, Susanne M. Brander3, Tien-Chieh Hung4, Nann A. Fangue5, Richard E. Connon1,*

1Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2Center for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
3Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
4Fish Conservation and Culture Laboratory, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
5Department of Wildlife, Fish & Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides are two of the most commonly used classes of insecticide worldwide. At sublethal concentrations, permethrin (a pyrethroid) and chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate) impact behavior in model fish species. We investigated behavioral effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of permethrin or chlorpyrifos on early larval delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a Critically Endangered teleost species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Delta, California, USA. Using a photomotor behavioral assay of oscillating light and dark periods, we measured distance moved, turn angle, meander, angular velocity, rotations, thigmotaxis (time spent in the border versus center), and swim speed duration and frequency. The lowest concentrations of permethrin used in the tests (0.05 and 0.5 µg l-1) caused significant increases in distance moved at 72 and 96 h, respectively. At 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, 5 µg l-1 of permethrin caused a hyperactive state in which the larvae significantly decreased thigmotaxis, quickly turning in short bouts of activity, characterized by significant increases in rotations and freezing events. Larvae exposed to 0.05 µg l-1 chlorpyrifos significantly increased thigmotaxis at 72 and 96 h. In response to 5 µg l-1 chlorpyrifos, larvae significantly increased velocity at 72 h exposure, and significantly increased freezing events at 96 h. Behavioral data on larval delta smelt exposed to contaminants present in their limited habitat have the potential to aid evaluations of the suitability of spawning and rearing habitats for this endangered species, thus improving conservation management strategies focused on this sensitive life stage.


KEY WORDS: Delta smelt · Hypomesus transpacificus · Behavioral toxicology · Pyrethroid · Organophosphate


Full text in pdf format
Supplementary material
Correction
 
Cite this article as: Mundy PC, Huff Hartz KE, Fulton CA, Lydy MJ and others (2021) Exposure to permethrin or chlorpyrifos causes differential dose- and time-dependent behavioral effects at early larval stages of an endangered teleost species. Endang Species Res 44:89-103. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr01091

Export citation
Mail this link - Contents Mailing Lists - RSS
Facebook - - linkedIn