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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 247:173-182 (2003)  -  doi:10.3354/meps247173

Trans-Tasman Sea larval transport: Is Australia a source for New Zealand rock lobsters?

Stephen M. Chiswell1,*, John Wilkin2, John D. Booth1, Basil Stanton1

1National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, PO Box 14-901, Wellington, New Zealand
2Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, 71 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8521, USA

ABSTRACT: Two species of rock lobster (Palinuridae) are commonly found in coastal waters around both New Zealand and Australia. Both species have a relatively long larval phase, which raises the question of how populations can be maintained in regions where the mean flow advects larvae away from the coast. Previous work shows that Jasus edwardsii is genetically indistinguishable between Australia and New Zealand, whereas Sagmariasus verreauxi may be genetically different between the 2 countries. Satellite altimeter data are used here to test the hypothesis that Australia acts as a source of larvae for some New Zealand populations, and to investigate if there is a physical mechanism for the apparent lack of gene flow for S. verreauxi. A Lagrangian approach is used in which the western Tasman Sea is seeded with numerical drifters to build up a statistical summary of the likely distribution of larval trajectories. Ignoring biological factors, about 9% of J. edwardsii and about 2% of S. verreauxi larvae might be expected to arrive in New Zealand waters within their respective larval lifetimes. An order-of-magnitude estimate shows that even with extremely high mortality, these rates are high enough for trans-Tasman larval flow to contribute to and possibly maintain some New Zealand populations. Larval flow across the Tasman Sea should be sufficient to maintain trans-Tasman genetic homogeneity in both species. We suggest that 1 reason that S. verreauxi may not be genetically homogenous is that in order to arrive in New Zealand within 1 larval lifetime, they have to cross the Tasman Sea north of the productive Subtropical Front where there is not enough prey to sustain them.

KEY WORDS: Lobster larvae · Tasman Sea · Modelling

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