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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 323:263-279 (2006)  -  doi:10.3354/meps323263

Spatial separation of foraging habitats among New Zealand fur seals

Brad Page1,4,*, Jane McKenzie1, Michael D. Sumner2, Michael Coyne3, Simon D. Goldsworthy1,4

1Sea Mammal Ecology Group, Zoology Department, La Trobe University, Bundoora Campus, Victoria 3086, Australia
2Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 77, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
3Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
4Present address: South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), PO Box 120, Henley Beach, South Australia 5022, Australia

ABSTRACT: We studied the foraging behaviour of lactating female, adult male and juvenile New Zealand (NZ) fur seals to compare and contrast their foraging strategies and assess the degree of spatial separation of their foraging habitats. Adult male fur seals are longer and heavier than lactating females, which are longer and heavier than juveniles. Trip duration was positively correlated with the distance travelled by all age/sex groups. Juveniles conducted longer trips and travelled further from the colony than males. Both juveniles and males conducted longer trips and travelled further than females, which made brief trips because they were provisioning pups. There were no seasonal differences in the behaviour of males, but females and juveniles foraged closer to the colony in summer when they were moulting and females had younger pups. Behavioural differences were recorded between lactating female, male and juvenile seals in the directional bearing from the colony, the distance travelled, the minimum size of the area that was potentially visited and the horizontal swim speed. Intra-specific foraging competition among these age/sex groups was minimal because lactating females typically used continental shelf waters and males utilised deeper waters over the shelf break, adjacent to female foraging grounds. Furthermore, juveniles used pelagic waters, up to 1000 km south of the habitats used by adults. Differences in the habitats used by females, males and juveniles were also apparent in the seafloor gradient, the SST and the surface chl a concentration, with females using regions with the highest chl a concentrations. Results from this study suggest that smaller seals cannot efficiently utilise prey in the same habitats as larger seals because smaller seals do not have the capacity to spend enough time underwater at the greater depths.

KEY WORDS: Arctocephalus · Sexual segregation · Sexual dimorphism · Foraging ecology · Resource partitioning

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