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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 372:147-155 (2008)  -  DOI:

Production of marine trematode cercariae: a potentially overlooked path of energy flow in benthic systems

David W. Thieltges1,*, Xavier de Montaudouin2, Brian Fredensborg3, K. Thomas Jensen4, Janet Koprivnikar5, Robert Poulin1

1Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, New Zealand
2University Bordeaux 1—CNRS, UMR EPOC 5805, Arcachon Marine Station, 2 rue du Pr Jolyet, 33120 Arcachon, France
3Department of Biology, University of Texas-Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539, USA
4Department of Biological Sciences, Marine Ecology, University of Aarhus, Finlandsgade 14, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
5Department of Biological Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California 95211, USA

ABSTRACT: Parasites, in particular trematodes, are unseen but ubiquitous components of marine intertidal ecosystems. Although parasites are known to affect population dynamics and food web structure, their potential function as an unrecognized path of energy flow in these ecosystems is yet to be quantified. We use published data on rates at which trematodes produce free-swimming infective larvae (cercariae) that are released from their gastropod intermediate hosts to investigate patterns in cercarial output as a function of different variables, and to calculate the annual production of cercariae in different marine benthic systems. Across 18 trematode species, cercarial output (no. cercariae shed snail–1 d–1) ranged over 4 orders of magnitude and was positively correlated with snail host species size. While cercarial output did not correlate with latitude, it did correlate negatively with the size of cercariae, and was influenced by the type of downstream host sought by cercariae, being highest when this host was a vertebrate. Our estimates of annual cercarial production (kJ m–2 yr–1), which take into account the density of infected snails in the habitat, were within the range of production values reported for free-living invertebrates inhabiting benthic ecosystems. These estimates would be much higher if they included all trematode species in an ecosystem, and not just single-species values. Overall, results suggest that trematode cercariae represent potentially important paths of energy flow in benthic systems as well as a potentially important food supply to benthic organisms.

KEY WORDS: Benthic production · Trematode cercariae · Cercarial output

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Cite this article as: Thieltges DW, de Montaudouin X, Fredensborg B, Jensen KT, Koprivnikar J, Poulin R (2008) Production of marine trematode cercariae: a potentially overlooked path of energy flow in benthic systems. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 372:147-155.

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