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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 393:247-258 (2009)  -  DOI:

Timing of breeding and reproductive performance in murres and kittiwakes reflect mismatched seasonal prey dynamics

Michael T. Shultz1,2,4,*, John F. Piatt1, Ann M. A. Harding1, Arthur B. Kettle3, Thomas I. Van Pelt1

1Alaska Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 1011 E. Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503, USA
2University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Biology and Wildlife, 211 Irving 1, Fairbanks, Alaska 99725, USA
3Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 95 Sterling Hwy, Homer, Alaska 99603, USA
4Present address: Iowa State University, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, 253 Bessey Hall, Ames, Iowa 50010, USA

ABSTRACT: Seabirds are thought to time breeding to match the seasonal peak of food availability with peak chick energetic demands, but warming ocean temperatures have altered the timing of spring events, creating the potential for mismatches. The resilience of seabird populations to climate change depends on their ability to anticipate changes in the timing and magnitude of peak food availability and ‘fine-tune’ efforts to match (‘Anticipation Hypothesis’). The degree that inter-annual variation in seabird timing of breeding and reproductive performance represents anticipated food availability versus energetic constraints (‘Constraint Hypothesis’) is poorly understood. We examined the relative merits of the Constraint and Anticipation Hypotheses by testing 2 predictions of the Constraint Hypothesis: (1) seabird timing of breeding is related to food availability prior to egg laying rather than the date of peak food availability, (2) initial reproductive output (e.g. laying success, clutch size) is related to pre-lay food availability rather than anticipated chick-rearing food availability. We analyzed breeding biology data of common murres Uria aalge and black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla and 2 proxies of the seasonal dynamics of their food availability (near-shore forage fish abundance and sea-surface temperature) at 2 colonies in Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from 1996 to 1999. Our results support the Constraint Hypothesis: (1) for both species, egg laying was later in years with warmer sea-surface temperature and lower food availability prior to egg laying, but was not related to the date of peak food availability, (2) pre-egg laying food availability explained variation in kittiwake laying success and clutch size. Murre reproductive success was best explained by food availability during chick rearing.

KEY WORDS: Phenology · Climate change · Food availability · Forage fish · Rissa tridactyla · Uria aalge

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Cite this article as: Shultz MT, Piatt JF, Harding AMA, Kettle AB, Van Pelt TI (2009) Timing of breeding and reproductive performance in murres and kittiwakes reflect mismatched seasonal prey dynamics. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 393:247-258.

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