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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 481:105-120 (2013)  -  DOI:

Sponge species composition, abundance, and cover in marine lakes and coastal mangroves in Berau, Indonesia

Leontine E. Becking1,2,*, Daniel F. R. Cleary3, Nicole J. de Voogd1

1Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Department Marine Zoology, PO Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, PO Box 57, 1780 AB Den Helder, The Netherlands
3Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

ABSTRACT: We compared the species composition, abundance, and cover of sponges in 2 marine lakes (Kakaban Lake and Haji Buang Lake) and adjacent coastal mangroves on the islands of Kakaban and Maratua in the Berau region of Indonesia. We recorded a total of 115 sponge species, 33 of which were restricted to Kakaban Lake, 18 to Haji Buang Lake, and 30 to coastal mangroves on Maratua Island. Only 13 species were shared among all habitats. The 2 marine lakes are located 10 km apart, but their assemblages were more similar to each other than to the bay mangrove systems just 200 to 500 m away. Our results show that marine lakes represent a distinct habitat with significantly higher sponge cover and abundance as well as a markedly different species composition when compared with coastal mangroves. In both lake and coastal mangrove habitats there was a pronounced gradient in composition away from the shore with the primary difference between solid (root or rock) and soft substrate (mud or sand). Each substrate type harbored different sets of species in both lake and coastal mangrove habitats. There was no significant difference in sponge species composition, abundance, or cover between semi-permanent transects sampled in 2008 and 2009. We show for the first time that mangroves in the Indo-Pacific harbor a diverse array of sponge species and, further, that marine lakes harbor numerous unique species hitherto unknown to science.

KEY WORDS: Mangrove roots · Species assemblage · Principal coordinates analysis · Borneo · East Kalimantan · Kakaban · Anchialine systems

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Cite this article as: Becking LE, Cleary DFR, de Voogd NJ (2013) Sponge species composition, abundance, and cover in marine lakes and coastal mangroves in Berau, Indonesia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 481:105-120.

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