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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 638:83-94 (2020)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13272

Global biogeography of marine amphipod crustaceans: latitude, regionalization, and beta diversity

Tri Arfianti1,2,*, Mark J. Costello3,4

1Institute of Marine Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
2Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta 12710, Indonesia
3School of Environment, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
4Faculty of Bioscience and Aquaculture, Nord Universitet, Bodø 8049, Norway
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Studying the biogeography of amphipod crustaceans is of interest because they play an important role at lower trophic levels in ecosystems. Because they lack a planktonic larval stage, it has been hypothesized that marine benthic amphipod crustaceans may have short dispersal distances, high endemicity, and spatial turnover in species composition, and consequently high global species richness. In this study, we examined over 400000 distribution records of 4876 amphipod species, and identified 12 regions of endemicity. The number and percent of endemic species peaked at 30°-35°S and coincided with 3 of these regions of high endemicity: Australia, New Zealand, and southern Africa. Pelagic species of marine amphipod crustaceans were more cosmopolitan than benthic species. The latitudinal patterns of richness (alpha, gamma, and ES50) and species turnover were at least bimodal. Most occurrence records and greater alpha and gamma richness were in mid-latitudes, reflecting sampling bias. Both ES50 and beta diversity had similar richness in the tropics, mid-latitudes, and on the Antarctic shelf around 70°S. These 2 indices exhibited a sharp dip in the deep Southern Ocean at 55°S. ES50 peaked at 30°-35°S and a small dip was apparent near the equator at 5°-10°N. Beta diversity was driven mostly by turnover rather than nestedness. These findings support the need for conservation in each realm of species endemicity—and for amphipods, particularly in Antarctica and the coastal mid-latitudes (30°-35°S) of the Southern Hemisphere.


KEY WORDS: Endemicity · Latitudinal gradients · Conservation · Species richness · Species turnover


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Cite this article as: Arfianti T, Costello MJ (2020) Global biogeography of marine amphipod crustaceans: latitude, regionalization, and beta diversity. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 638:83-94. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13272

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