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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 642:207-225 (2020)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13339

Links in the trophic chain: modeling functional relationships between in situ oceanography, krill, and blue whale distribution under different oceanographic regimes

Dawn R. Barlow1,*, Kim S. Bernard2, Pablo Escobar-Flores3, Daniel M. Palacios4, Leigh G. Torres1

1Geospatial Ecology of Marine Megafauna Lab, Marine Mammal Institute, and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon 97365, USA
2College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA
3National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Sciences, Ltd., Wellington 6021, New Zealand
4Marine Mammal Institute, and Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon 97365, USA
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: The response of marine predators to global climate change and shifting ocean conditions is tightly linked with their environment and prey. Environmental data are frequently used as proxies for prey availability in marine predator distribution models, as the ephemeral nature of prey makes sampling difficult. For this reason, the functional, ecological links between environment, prey, and predator are rarely described or explicitly tested. We used 3 years of vessel-based whale survey data paired with oceanographic sampling and hydroacoustic backscatter to model trophic relationships between water column structure, krill availability, and blue whale Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda distribution in New Zealand’s South Taranaki Bight region under typical (2014 and 2017) and warm (2016) austral summer oceanographic regimes. The warm regime was characterized by a shallower mixed layer, and a stronger, thicker, and warmer thermocline. Boosted regression tree models showed that krill metrics predicted blue whale distribution (typical regime = 36% versus warm regime = 64% cross-validated deviance explained) better than oceanography (typical regime = 19% versus warm regime = 31% cross-validated deviance explained). However, oceanographic features that predicted more krill aggregations (typical regime) and higher krill density (warm regime) aligned closely with the features that predicted higher probability of blue whale presence in each regime. Therefore, this study confirms that environmental drivers of prey availability can serve as suitable proxies for blue whale distribution. Considering changing ocean conditions that may influence the distribution of marine predators, these findings emphasize the need for models based on functional relationships, and calibrated across a broad range of conditions, to inform effective conservation management.


KEY WORDS: Species distribution modeling · Blue whale · Balaenoptera musculus · Krill · Oceanography · Boosted regression trees · Marine predators · New Zealand · Marine heatwave · Climate change


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Cite this article as: Barlow DR, Bernard KS, Escobar-Flores P, Palacios DM, Torres LG (2020) Links in the trophic chain: modeling functional relationships between in situ oceanography, krill, and blue whale distribution under different oceanographic regimes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 642:207-225. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13339

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