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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 654:109-125 (2020)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13514

Spatiotemporal segregation of ocean sunfish species (Molidae) in the eastern North Pacific

M. C. Arostegui1,*, C. D. Braun2,4, P. A. Woodworth-Jefcoats3, D. R. Kobayashi3, P. Gaube1

1Air-Sea Interaction and Remote Sensing Department - Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
2School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
3National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), Honolulu, HI 96818, USA
4Present address: Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Ocean sunfishes or molas (Molidae) are difficult to study as a result of their extensive movements and low densities in remote waters. In particular, little is known of the environmental niche separation and differences in the reproductive or movement ecology of molids in sympatry. We investigated spatiotemporal dynamics in the distribution of the common mola Mola mola, sharptail mola Masturus lanceolatus, and slender mola Ranzania laevis in the eastern North Pacific. We used observer data from a commercial fishery consisting of 85000+ longline sets spanning 24 yr, >50° in longitude, and >45° in latitude. Satellite altimetry analysis, species distribution modeling, and multivariate ordination revealed thermal niche separation, spatiotemporal segregation, and distinct community associations of the 3 molid species. Our quantitative findings suggest that the common mola is a more temperate species, while slender and sharptail mola are more (sub)tropical species, and that slender (and possibly also sharptail) mola undergo spawning migrations to the region around the Hawaiian Islands. In addition, we identified potential effects of fishing gear type on molid catch probability, an increasing trend in catch probability of a vulnerable species perhaps related to a shift in the distribution of fishing effort, and the possible presence in the fishery of a fourth molid species being misidentified as a congener, all of which are important conservation considerations for these enigmatic fishes.


KEY WORDS: Mola mola · Masturus lanceolatus · Ranzania laevis · Bycatch · Species distribution modeling · Longline


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Cite this article as: Arostegui MC, Braun CD, Woodworth-Jefcoats PA, Kobayashi DR, Gaube P (2020) Spatiotemporal segregation of ocean sunfish species (Molidae) in the eastern North Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 654:109-125. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13514

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