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Marine Ecology Progress Series

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MEPS 658:135-148 (2021)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13552

Sex-biased dispersal depends on the spatial scale in a tube-building amphipod

Pedro A. Peres1,4,*,#, Ana Paula Ferreira1,#, Glauco B. O. Machado2, Marianne Azevedo-Silva1, Silvana G. L. Siqueira3, Fosca P. P. Leite3

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo 13083-862, Brazil
2Biosciences Institute, Coastal Campus, São Paulo State University (UNESP), São Vicente, São Paulo 11330-900, Brazil
3Department of Animal Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo 13083-862, Brazil
4Present address: Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters at Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-901, Brazil
*Corresponding author:
#These authors contributed equally to this work

ABSTRACT: Behavioral differences between males and females can lead to sex-biased dispersal (SBD), and tube-building amphipods are good model organisms to study this process. Depending on the species, males or females have a different affinity to their tubes, and one sex may be more mobile than the other. This distinct dispersal behavior and the scales at which it occurs are not fully understood. Here, we tested the SBD hypothesis at different spatial scales in Cymadusa filosa using direct and indirect approaches. We conducted laboratory (small scale) and field experiments (local scale), and molecular analyses (local and large scale). Laboratory experiments indicated male-biased dispersal over small scales (cm), whereas over local scales (m), field experiments showed similar colonization rates of previously cleaned fronds for both males and females, suggesting no SBD. A higher proportion of juveniles than expected had colonized these fronds, suggesting that juveniles have higher dispersal rates than adults. Also, neighboring individuals were not more genetically related than spatially distant individuals. Over large scales (km), molecular analyses did not indicate SBD, and there were no differences in genetic structure between sexes. Our results showed that SBD depends on the spatial scale. Combining different approaches, we showed that the dispersal of males and females over local and large scales is sufficient to cause a lack of genetic differentiation within each sex, despite small-scale SBD.


KEY WORDS: Cymadusa filosa · Peracarida · Mesograzer · Dispersal · Tube-building behavior · Microsatellites · Colonization


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Cite this article as: Peres PA, Ferreira AP, Machado GBO, Azevedo-Silva M, Siqueira SGL, Leite FPP (2021) Sex-biased dispersal depends on the spatial scale in a tube-building amphipod. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 658:135-148. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13552

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