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Primate conservation: measuring and mitigating trade in primates
Photo: Dwi, WCU Sumatra

The sale and exchange by people of wild animals – 'wildlife trade' – is an issue at the heart of the relationship between biodiversity conservation and sustainable development, an essential component of the Convention on Biodiversity. Directly and indirectly, increasing demand and consumption are depleting the Earth's living natural resources at an alarming rate, even though it is well known that these resources form the biological foundation upon which human society depends. A 2008 report by Conservation International, ‘Eaten to extinction,’ revealed that 48% of primate taxa are threatened with extinction, a major contributor to their imminent demise being unregulated wildlife trade.


Topics covered include overviews and case studies of the bushmeat, medicinal and pet trades; effective implementation of CITES; the use of forensics in trade; problems, pitfalls, and successes of rehabilitating and reintroducing confiscated primates; and educational and livelihood strategies to mitigate trade. The fusion of these topics should be of interest to primatologists and zoologists within academia, zoos, rescue centres and the conservation community. All manuscripts are published with online open access, and thus high profile and accessibility is assured.


For more information go to the Primate Society of Great Britain’s web site at


Articles belonging to this Theme Section were published in the current ESR issue as soon as they became ready. They are listed below as well as on the contents page of the respective issue.


Editors: Mike Bruford, John Fa, Anna Nekaris, Vincent Nijman




Nijman V, Nekaris KAI, Donati G, Bruford M, Fa J

OVERVIEW: Primate conservation: measuring and mitigating trade in primates

ESR 13:159-161 | Full text in pdf format



Rönn AC, Andrés O, López-Giráldez F, Johnsson-Glans C, Verschoor EJ, Domingo-Roura X, Bruford MW, Syvänen AC, Bosch M

First generation microarray-system for identification of primate species subject to bushmeat trade

ESR 9:133-142 | Full text in pdf format



Maldonado AM, Nijman V, Bearder SK

Trade in night monkeys Aotus spp. in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru tri-border area: international wildlife trade regulations are ineffectively enforced

ESR 9:143-149 | Full text in pdf format



Nijman V, Yang Martinez C-f, Shepherd CR

Saved from trade: donated and confiscated gibbons in zoos and rescue centres in Indonesia

ESR 9:151-157 | Full text in pdf format



Cheyne SM

AS I SEE IT: Challenges and opportunities of primate rehabilitation—gibbons as a case study

ESR 9:159-165 | Full text in pdf format



Wright JH, Priston NEC

Hunting and trapping in Lebialem Division, Cameroon: bushmeat harvesting practices and human reliance

ESR 11:1-12 | Full text in pdf format



Shepherd CR

Illegal primate trade in Indonesia exemplified by surveys carried out over a decade in North Sumatra

ESR 11:201-205 | Full text in pdf format



Starr C, Nekaris KAI, Streicher U, Leung L

Traditional use of slow lorises Nycticebus bengalensis and N. pygmaeus in Cambodia: an impediment to their conservation

ESR 12:17-23 | Full text in pdf format



Ceballos-Mago N, González CE, Chivers DJ

Impact of the pet trade on the Margarita capuchin monkey Cebus apella margaritae

ESR 12:57-68 | Full text in pdf format



Ceballos-Mago N, Chivers DJ

Local knowledge and perceptions of pet primates and wild Margarita capuchins on Isla de Margarita and Isla de Coche in Venezuela

ESR 13:63–72 | Full text in pdf format