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The effect of fipronil exposure on the activity of biotransformation enzymes and histology in the liver of grass carp

Rashid Alijani Ardeshir*, Sarina Shahidokht, Mehdi Mirzaei, Sara Rastgar

*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Fipronil (FPN) is an insecticide used in agriculture. This study has focused on the biotransformation process and the histopathological effects of FPN in the liver of grass carp. Fish were exposed to environmental concentrations of FPN (3, 6, and 10 ug/L) for up to 14 days. The alterations in phase I and II biotransformation enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and histopathology in the liver were studied on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th days. Results showed that EROD (dose-dependent manner) and GST activity (time-dependent manner) were increased. The MDA content was increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The most hepatological damages were steatosis, dilatation of the vein, pycnosis, and increased melanomacrophage center, probably due to oxidative stress originating from biotransformation enzyme activity (R2 = 0.88 for GST and MDA). The level of degree of tissue change (DTC) at the high dose showed moderate damage to the liver (R2 =0.82 for GST and DTC). Nevertheless, the level of the EROD and GST activity and MDA content indicated complex interactions among various phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes which should be studied in future studies with more replications.